Killian has advanced the sport of college basketball internationally through his involvement as president of the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) and as a member of the International Olympic Committee. The Ohio Northern graduate spent his early years coaching high school and junior college basketball. He has also served as president of the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame and has been inducted into the National Junior College Athletic Association's baseball coaches hall of fame and basketball hall of fame. Killian has served as secretary-treasurer of the U.S. Track and Field Federation as well as serving on boards of directors for the governing bodies of U.S. basketball, gymnastics and wrestling. He also served as president of the International University Sports Federation (FISU), sponsor of the World University Games.